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Program E: Adult Services

Program Authorization: R.S. 15:821-840.2; R.S. 36:401-409; R.S. 15:111; Hayes Williams, et al v. John McKeithen, et al CA 71-98-b (M.D. La.)

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The mission of the Adult Services Program is to provide administrative oversight and support of the operational programs of the adult correctional institutions. The assistant secretary leads and directs the department's audit team, which conducts operational audits of all adult and juvenile institutions and assists all units with matters relative to the maintenance of American Correctional Association (ACA) accreditation. Staff in this office also support the Administrative Remedy Procedure (inmate grievance and disciplinary appeals).

The goals of the Adult Services Program are:

1. Maximize public safety through appropriate and effective correctional custodial and supervisory programs.

2. Provide for the safety of correctional staff and inmates by maintaining an organized and disciplined system of operations that promotes stability in institutional and other field operations.

3. Ensure the basic well-being of the inmate population by providing adequate food, clothing, medical care, and shelter.

4. Provide an environment that enables behavior change by making rehabilitative opportunities available for inmates who demonstrate motivation for change and the desire to participate in rehabilitative programs.

There are 11 state adult correctional facilities, two of which are operated by private prison management corporations. Louisiana's adult prison system was placed under federal court order in June 1975. During 1997, 10 adult state prisons were released from the federal consent decree, under which all state prisons had operated since 1983 (except for a brief period of time when nine had been released from the consent decree). Only Louisiana State Penitentiary remains under the consent decree.

According to advance figures reported in the Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin: Prisoners in 1996 , Louisiana continues to have the second highest state incarceration rate (the number of prisoners with a sentence of more than one year per 100,000 resident population) in the nation--615 per 100,000 population at year-end 1996 (December 31, 1996). Only Texas had a higher incarceration rate (686 per 100,000 population). The U.S. total incarceration rate (including both state and federal prisoners) was 427 per 100,000 population; the federal only incarceration rate, 33 per 100,000; and the state only incarceration rate, 394 per 100,000.

On June 30,1997, there were 79,453 adult inmates under the supervision of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Office of Corrections Services. Of this total, 28,382 were state prisoners; 18,777 were under parole supervision; and 32,294 were under probation supervision.

OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

1. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will maintain American Correctional Association (ACA) accreditation of all adult corrections institutions.

2. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will maximize available capacity without exceeding maximum facility design capacity.

1 Between 1978 and 1990, state prison bed capacity more than doubled. By increasing the density of dormitory populations at Avoyelles Correctional Center, Winn Correctional Center, Allen Correctional Center, the Louisiana State Penitentiary (LSP), Elayn Hunt Correctional Center (EHCC), Work Training Facility-North, and Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women (LCIW), 922 expansion beds were added during 1995. An additional 120 beds were added by conversion of a laundry facility at Dixon Correctional Institute (DCI) in 1995. A dormitory was completed at LCIW in January 1996, which added 200 new beds for the system. Additional beds were added at EHCC in October 1997 by converting the building that housed the Prison Enterprises work programs to 132-bed dormitory. This allowed for expansion of the IMPACT program (64 beds) and ARDC (128 beds). DCI has made three adjustments to its population, beginning July 14, 1996, which added an additional 84 beds to the facility. Additionally, Washington Correctional Institute added 64 beds by making minor adjustments in each dormitory. LCIW was budgeted for an additional 50 inmates for FY 1997-98 and plans to add an additional 116 to their capacity in the current fiscal year, given additional resources. In September 1997, LSP added 230 beds to its capacity by utilizing the newly constructed dormitory at Camp F to increase capacity. The dorm was originally intended to be used as a "swing dorm" to allow for completion of capital outlay projects in other housing units. The demand for beds has necessitated a change in these plans. Additional resources will be needed in accomplishing this. New cellblocks (48 cells/96 beds per unit) are planned at DCI and EHCC, for 192 new beds (96 per facility). An additional 326 beds will be coming on line at David Wade Correctional Center at the Forcht-Wade facility (formerly Caddo Detention Center) in 1998. The planning for construction of a centralized Skilled Nursing/Mental Health Unit for the department at EHCC is also in process. Capacity is projected to reach 18,230 by the end of FY 1997-98 and 18,396 in FY 1998-99.

2 On July 1, 1996, inmate population exceeded capacity in 8 of 16 states in the southern region reporting the maximum design capacity of their state correctional facilities. The southern average was 100% of capacity. (Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1996)

3 On July 1, 1997, inmate population exceeded capacity in 8 of 16 states in the southern region reporting the maximum design capacity of their state correctional facilities. The southern average was 100% of capacity. (Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997)

Explanatory Note: The inmate population housed in state correctional facilities throughout the Southern Legislative Conference region increased by 4.8% from July 1, 1996, to July 1, 1997. The rate of change for each state varied widely, from a 20.9% increase in Mississippi to a 2.4% decrease in West Virginia. In Louisiana, the inmate population housed in state correctional facilities grew by 2.6%. However, Louisiana had the highest number of state prisoners housed in parish prisons.

Fourteen of the 16 states in the Southern Legislative Conference region provided projections of the growth of their total inmate populations (regardless of where they were housed) to the year 2002. Predicted increases range from a high of 69.8% in Kentucky to a low of 1.7% in North Carolina. Nine states projected inmate populations to the year 2007. Predicted increases range from a high of 119.9% in Missouri to a low of 15.6% in North Carolina. Louisiana's adult inmate population is projected to reach 23,946 in 2002 (a 34.0% increase from 1997 population) and 29,616 in 2007 (a 65.7% increase from 1997 population). (Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997)

3. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will provide services in the most efficient and effective manner possible.

Measures of service efficiency include average daily cost per day per inmate bed, corrections expenditures per capita, and percentage change in corrections budget, all as compared to southern or national averages).

1 As presented by Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Corrections Services in budget request document.

2 Based on total capacity, except at Dixon Correctional Institute, Elayn Hunt Correctional Center, and Wade Correctional Center, where inmates are being phased in. Figures for those facilities are based on average budgeted number of inmates.

The following table provides a comparison of systemwide annual average costs per inmates and average costs per day per inmate housed in state institutions in Southern Legislative Conference states as of July 1, 1997. As shown, Louisiana had the second lowest systemwide annual average cost per inmate and the second lowest average cost per inmate housed in state institutions.

INMATE POPULATIONS, SECURITY RATIOS, TOTAL ANNUAL COST PER INMATE, AND AVERAGE DAILY COST PER INMATE

IN SOUTHERN LEGISLATIVE CONFERENCE STATES, 1997

 

 

STATE

 

NUMBER OF INMATES HOUSED IN STATE INSTITUTIONS1

NUMBER OF INMATES PER CORRECTIONAL OFFICER2

 

SYSTEMWIDE ANNUAL AVERAGE COST PER INMATE3

AVERAGE COST PER DAY PER INMATE HOUSED IN STATE INSTITUTIONS4

Alabama

20,422

9.4

$6,267

$17.17

Arkansas

8,750

4.2

$13,728

$37.61

Florida

64,713

4.4

$17,680

$48.44

Georgia

36,339

5.1

$17,239

$47.23

Kentucky

11,069

6.2

$14,433

$39.54

Louisiana

17,876

4.6

$11,305

$30.97

Maryland

22,194

4.6

Not Available

--------

Mississippi

13,476

6.6

$12,067

$33.06

Missouri

23,695

6.8

$11,428 5

$31.31

North Carolina

30,737

3.0

$23,108

$63.31

Oklahoma5

14,845

7.0

$13,855

$37.96

South Carolina

20,121

4.9

$12,764

$34.97

Tennessee

14,123

6.9

$14,842

$40.66

Texas

138,861

6.6

$14,753

$40.42

Virginia

24,958

3.8

$16,289

$44.63

West Virginia

2,414

4.3

$14,909

$40.85

TOTAL/AVERAGE6

464,593

5.0

$14,311

$39.21

1 As of July 1, 1997. Includes state prisoners housed in privately operated state prisons but does not include state prisoners housed in local jails.

2 Based on the number of correctional officer positions filled, as of July 1, 1997, in state prisons; does not include positions in privately operated prisons.

3 Figures are FY 1996-97 actual, unless otherwise noted. Annual operating costs include those attributed to each state corrections department. Expenditures associated with noncorrections budget units for inmate support are not included.

4 Calculated by dividing figures in previous column by 365 days.

5 Figure represents appropriation costs; expenditure costs have not yet been calculated.

6 Average calculation includes only those states that provided cost data.

Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997

External comparisons:

· Louisiana's per capita state spending on corrections ($88.34) was below the national average ($103.21) for FY 1995-96. (Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census)

· Louisiana had the third lowest increase in adult corrections budgets among Southern Legislative Conference (SLC) states between FY 1987-88 and FY 1997-98. Louisiana's correction budget grew by 104.29% while the region's expenditures for corrections climbed by 174.73%. (Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee, Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997)

· Between FY 1992-93 and FY 1997-98, Louisiana had the fourth lowest increase in its adult corrections budget among SLC states. Louisiana's corrections budget grew by 30.08% while the region's expenditures for corrections rose by 41.50%.(Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee, Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997)

· The nationwide average total cost per inmate per day in 1996 was $54.25 in all adult agencies; Louisiana's was $35.86. (Source: Criminal Justice Institute, The 1997 Corrections Yearbook )

· The nationwide average daily cost per inmate per day for food in 1996 was $3.65; Louisiana's was $1.63. (Source: Criminal Justice Institute, The 1997 Corrections Yearbook )

· The nationwide average daily cost per inmate day for medical care in FY 1996-97 was $6.59; Louisiana's was $4.64. (Source: Criminal Justice Institute, The 1997 Corrections Yearbook )

4. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will monitor security operations at adult institutions to assure the safety of inmates, staff, and public.

1 Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1996

2 Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997

3 Southern Legislative Conference data for FY 1998-99 will not be available until Fall 1998.

External Comparison: For a comparison of the number of inmates per corrections officer in Southern Legislative Conference states, as of July 1, 1997, see the southern states table under Objective 3 above .

Outcome Indicator: The following table provides a comparison of violent incidents (assaults, deaths, and escapes) in state correctional system in Southern Legislative Conference States in FY 1996-97.

 

VIOLENT INCIDENTS IN STATE CORRECTIONAL SYSTEMS, FY 1996-1997

SOUTHERN AND SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

 

 

 

STATE

ASSAULTS ON

DEATHS OF

ESCAPES FROM PRISON GROUNDS

INMATES

STAFF

INMATES

STAFF

ATTEMPTED

AT-LARGE

No.

Per 1,000

No.

Per 1,000

No.

Per 1,000

No.

Per 1,000

No.

Per 1,000

No.

Per 1,000

Alabama

220

10.77

263

12.88

1

0.05

0

0.00

3

0.15

1

0.05

Arkansas

110

12.57

25

2.86

2

0.23

0

0.00

7

0.80

0

0.00

Florida

1,157

17.88

758

11.71

6

0.09

0

0.00

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Georgia

3,994

109.91

427

11.75

0

0.00

0

0.00

89

2.45

5

0.14

Kentucky

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Louisiana

19

1.06

1

0.06

1

0.06

0

0.00

6

0.34

0

0.00

Maryland

1,200

55.07

459

20.68

2

0.09

0

0.00

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Mississippi

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0

0.00

0

0.00

1

0.07

0

0.17

Missouri

403

17.01

526

22.20

0

0.00

0

0.00

51

2.15

4

0.10

North Carolina

315

10.25

404

13.14

1

0.03

0

0.00

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Oklahoma

140

9.43

109

7.34

4

0.27

0

0.00

223

15.02

0

0.00

South Carolina

566

28.13

333

16.55

0

0.00

0

0.00

22

1.09

0

0.00

Tennessee

31

2.20

17

1.20

1

0.07

0

0.00

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Texas

1,388

10.00

918

6.61

5

0.04

0

0.00

34

0.24

0

0

Virginia

86

3.45

72

2.88

0

0.00

0

0.00

3

0.12

0

0

West Virginia

150

62.14

25

10.36

0

0.00

0

0.00

10

4.14

0

0.00

TOTAL

9,779

21.05

4,337

9.34

23

0.05

0

0.00

449

0.97

10

0.02

Source: Adult Correctional Systems: A Comparative Data Report Submitted to the Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee , Southern Legislative Conference, Council of State Governments, Fall 1997

5. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will coordinate and monitor the provision of basic/broad-based educational programs to adult inmates who are motivated to take advantage of these services and have demonstrated behavior that would enable them to function within an educational setting.

Input Indicator: The average reading level for 1,644 adult inmates randomly tested in March 1993 was grade 6.5.

ACADEMIC, VOCATIONAL, AND LITERACY ACTIVITIES IN ADULT CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM (SYSTEMWIDE TOTALS)

 

1991-92

1992-93

1993-94

1994-95

1995-96

1996-97

Average monthly enrollment in adult basic education program

969

1,151

1,013

968

984

1,083

Number receiving GED

388

445

350

367

448

476

Average monthly enrollment in vo-tech program

774

871

1,145

957

1,212

1,320

Number receiving vo-tech certificate

528

740

582

647

947

1,367

Average monthly enrollment in literacy program

566

670

603

576

544

722

Explanatory Note: Funding for teachers and educational materials is provided by the Department of Education, Board of Elementary and Secondary Education.

6. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will provide guidance to prisons as they continue to seek efficient, effective strategies to address inmate health care issues.

In terms of special needs for inmates, a geriatric and chronic convalescent facility for male inmates was opened during FY 1996-97 in Caddo Parish. This facility will address the growing concern that the Louisiana State Penitentiary will evolve into a "correctional nursing home" as well as address the system's need for a centralized nursing facility for the chronically ill. The Caddo Detention Center was deeded to the State of Louisiana on July 1, 1996, through Resolution No. 14 of 1996 by the Caddo Parish Commission. The population of this facility includes inmates from the northern part of the state who are being processed into the state correctional system and those who are geriatric and/or infirm and not eligible or otherwise appropriate for medical furlough. The location of this facility facilitates the efficiency of medical services needed by these inmates as it is located near the Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport and their School of Allied Health. David Wade Correctional Center (DWCC) will manage and operate the facility as a satellite unit under the name of Dr. Martin L. Forcht, Jr., Clinical Treatment Unit (Forcht-Wade for short).

The Forcht-Wade facility also houses a number of support inmates who assist in the maintenance of the facility. The staffing of the facility has been geared to the special medical care to be rendered and to the reception and diagnostic function. The staffing also reflects a reliance on much of the administrative and support staff at DWCC.

Medical and psychiatric care will be enhanced through centralization of these services at Elayn Hunt Correctional Center (EHCC). A formal plan has been submitted to Facility Planning and Control to construct and equip a new skilled Nursing/Mental Health/AIDS-HIV unit at EHCC to provide for the acute an chronic medical and mental health needs of the department. The proposed facilities will include new clinical areas and inpatient housing units designed around the special requirements for the delivery of essential medical and mental health services. The facility would also supplement the services provided by the LSU Medical Center, Health Care Services, by providing for Correction Services' short- and long-term health care needs for nonhospital services such as emergency care, frequent medical monitoring, long-term skilled nursing home care, and hospice care. Construction would add 458 beds at a cost of approximately $26,000,000.

The department continues to seek ways to enhance the efficiency of medical services. The department's first telemedicine project was established at David Wade Correctional Center using the resources via television equipment at E. A. Conway Hospital in Monroe and LSU Medical Center in Shreveport. In FY 1996-97, a telemedicine program was implemented at the Louisiana State Penitentiary (LSP) at Angola. This real-time capability allows for immediate diagnostic assessment of inmates between LSP and the Medical Center of Louisiana (MCLA) in New Orleans as well as the Earl K. Long Hospital in Baton Rouge. The system is fully operational, with clinics twice a day, five days per week, providing diagnostic and treatment services to approximately 80 inmates per month. Plans call for establishment of a network between the state prisons with regional public hospitals and/or the LSU Medical Center.

Abuse of the medical care system can directly affect the quality of medical services provided to inmates. Quality time for patient treatment and care is enhanced and abuse of the system is minimized when frivolous complaints are restricted. To accomplish this, and to impose a fee whereby inmates contribute to the cost of their care, the department implemented a schedule of medical co-payments for adult inmates. The co-payments are designed to be an original access fee for the initiation of medical services for an illness or injury. No inmate is refused medical, mental health, dental services, and prescription or other drugs necessary for basic health because of financial status.

1 Does not include privately operated prisons (Winn Correctional Center and Allen Correctional Center).

External Comparison: According to the Criminal Justice Institute's The 1997 Corrections Yearbook, the nationwide average daily cost per inmate day for medical care was $6.59; Louisiana's was $4.64.

MEDICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH TRENDS IN ADULT CORRECTIONS SYSTEM

 

1993-94

1994-95

1995-96

1996-97

Number of deaths:

 

 

 

 

Suicides

1

3

0

3

Violence

1

1

0

1

Illness

42

53

62

68

Number of serious illnesses:

 

 

 

 

Tuberculosis1

835

506

597

409

HIV

54

271

332

386

AIDS

18

24

19

29

1 Number of positive responses to test administered to inmate population for TB infection. A positive response indicates presence of TB infection, but not necessarily active TB disease. Because inmates who test positive once are no longer included in the test base, figures for subsequent years reflect only new positive responses.

7. In FY 1998-99, the Adult Services Program will lead efforts to reduce recidivism among adult offenders.

Outcome Indicator: The Department of Public Safety and Corrections, Corrections Services (DPS&C,CS) defines recidivism as the return to correctional supervision or incarceration after a conditional or nonconditional release from DPS&C,CS incarceration by one of the following types of release: parole, good time/parole supervision; full-term; release to detainers; good time release; court order release; and probation (split sentence). Each individual is tracked for four full years. Based on records of persons released from 1986 through 1989 and followed four full years after release, the recidivism rate for adult inmates is about 48%. The following table provides information on recidivism among adults discharged from DPS&C,CS since 1990.

RECIDIVISM IN LOUISIANA ADULT CORRECTIONS, AS OF 7/1/97

RELEASE YEAR

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Number released1

6,241

6,730

9,031

9,782

10,537

11,407

12,197

Follow-up period

7 Years

6 Years

5 Years

4 Years

3 Years

2 Years

1 Year

Number returned2

3,144

3,210

4,346

4,295

4,195

3,440

1,801

Recidivism rate

50.4%

47.7%

48.1%

43.8%

39.8%

30.2%

14.8%

1 Includes releases from institutions, DPS&C,CS prisoners released from parish jails, as well as inmates released from community rehabilitation centers.

2 Includes returns to corrections incarceration by: new court commitments and revocations (parole, good time, parole supervision, and probation). (Recidivism is defined as a return to state custody by receiving a new felony sentence or revocation of a previous felony. The offender will serve his/her sentence in a community rehabilitation center, parish jail, or state correctional institution.)

SOURCE OF FUNDING

This program is funded entirely with state general fund.

ANALYSIS OF RECOMMENDATION

GENERAL FUND

TOTAL

T.O.

 

DESCRIPTION

 

 

 

 

 

$1,330,503

$1,330,503

22

 

ACT 18 FISCAL YEAR 1997-1998

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BA-7 TRANSACTIONS:

$0

$0

0

 

None

 

 

 

 

 

$1,330,503

$1,330,503

22

 

EXISTING OPERATING BUDGET - December 10, 1997

 

 

 

 

 

$5,285

$5,285

0

 

Equipment/Major Repairs Adjustment(s) (Non-recurring: -$9,215; Replacement/New: +$14,500)

$17,784

$17,784

0

 

Annualization of 1998 -'99 Merit Pay Adjustment(s)

$15,992

$15,992

0

 

1998 -'99 Merit Pay Adjustment(s)

($25,001)

($25,001)

0

 

Attrition Adjustment(s)

($4,161)

($4,161)

0

 

Retirement Rate Adjustment(s)

($38,833)

($38,833)

(1)

 

Transfer one Project Coordinator position to the Office of the Secretary Program to properly reflect funding in the appropriated program

 

 

 

 

 

$1,301,569

$1,301,569

21

 

TOTAL RECOMMENDED

 

 

 

 

 

($28,934)

($28,934)

(1)

 

DIFFERENCE (TOTAL RECOMMENDATION AND EXISTING OPERATING BUDGET)

The total means of financing for this program is recommended at 97.8% of the existing operating budget. It represents 88.0% of the total request ($1,478,407) for this program. The decrease in the recommended level is primarily attributed to the transfer of one position with associated funding to the Office of the Secretary Program.

PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

$91,438

 

Medical services and autopsy services for inmates in the adult institutions

$30,000

 

Substance abuse treatment services

 

 

 

$121,438

 

TOTAL PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

OTHER CHARGES

$76,000

 

Discharge and travel expenses for inmates

 

 

 

$76,000

 

TOTAL OTHER CHARGES

 

 

 

 

 

Interagency Transfers:

$245,639

 

L.S.U. School of Social Welfare to provide mental health consultant service

 

 

 

$245,639

 

TOTAL INTERAGENCY TRANSFERS

ACQUISITIONS AND MAJOR REPAIRS

$14,500

 

Replacement of various pieces of office equipment

 

 

 

$14,500

 

TOTAL ACQUISITIONS AND MAJOR REPAIRS


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